CONTENTS of journal "THNP" 3•2013 (Russia)
Garris N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department «Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines»
Poletaeva O., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, Department «Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines»
PROBLEMS OF LOW-GRADE OIL TRANSPORTATION
Questions of low-grade oil production and transportation were considered, methods of physical and chemical effect to rheological properties to facilitate transportation were presented, such as: magnetic action, electromagnetic action, γ- and UV-radiation, wave action, cavitation effect application. Problems of transportation connected to heat exchanging between pipeline and terrestrial environment cause it is no stationary process of non-isothermal pipelines.
KEYWORDS: low-grade oil, synthetic crude oil, high-viscosity oil, production, pipeline transportation, rheological properties, physical and chemical effect.
Hasanova K.I., Graduate Student
Mastobaev B.N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of «Transportation and storage of oil and gas» Ufa State Oil Technical University (st. Kosmonauts, 1, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)
MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF POVERTY AND METHODS ASPHALTENE DEPOSITION IN THE TRANSPORT PROCESS OF OIL THROUGH PIPELINES
Examines the current views on the state of the problem of asphaltene-resin-paraffindeposits in the pipeline and possible ways of solving it. Provides an overview of the different ways of dealing withdeposits in pipelines: mechanical (the use of different design and material of the scrapers and pistons), thermal (hot flushing coolant, electric heating), physical (based on physical effects on the transported product), chemical (injection of solvents and inhibitors using the detergent compositions, gel purification using pistons). Showing mechanical devices for cleaning of main oil pipelines of paraffin. Particular attention is paid to an integrated approach to the use of tools and techniques to control the asphaltene-resin-paraffindeposits in the process of oil transportation through trunk pipelines. A brief classification of existing methods for the prevention and removal of paraffin oil.
KEYWORDS: pipelines, asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits factors, classification methods, methods of dealing with asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits.
Chuchkalov Mikhail V., Candidat of Tech. Sci., Gazprom transgas Ufa, (Zorghe str., 59, Ufa, 450054, Russian Federation)
Dubinsky Viktor G., Candidat of Tech. Sci. (Leninsky prospect, 70/11 − 188, Moscow, 119261, Russian Federation)
STUDY ON HYDRODYNAMICS OF GAS TEST METHOD «STRESS TEST»
Quality assurance issues repaired pipelines extend their safe operation at JSC Gazprom are a priority. This article describes the results of studies of the effectiveness of the application of hydraulic pressure tests (method «stress test»). Provides guidance on the criteria and modalities for the selection of pipes for their rehabilitation. The methodology of the hydraulic impact test pipeline section.
KEYWORDS: fluid dynamics, testing, gas pipeline, stress test.
Lalin Vladimir V., Doctor of Tech. Sci., Prof., St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University(Polytechnicheskaya, 29, St.Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation)
PROPOSALS TO CALCULATION OF SECTIONS OF BURIED PIPELINES WITH STRUCTURAL INCLUSION ON SEISMIC LOAD
Presented the development of practical recommendations to the calculation of the main sites of buried pipelines with structural interventions on the seismic action. A previously developed technique was not widely used in practice in mind the difficulties associated with the need of numerical solutions of systems of differential equations.
On the basis of the localization phenomena fluctuations, analytical dependence for the determination of additional dynamic stresses in terms of the relevant regulations. The resulting dependence is characterized by additional longitudinal and transverse dynamic stresses in turn due to the concentrated localization of vibration on that section of the pipeline. From the figure it is that, under certain conditions, local variations inclusion may lead to additional efforts that exceed the efforts resulting from fluctuations in the soil.
The article provides a method of calculating the effect on seismic sections of buried pipelines with a constructive inclusion . Shows the sequence of calculations by the proposed procedure.
KEYWORDS: buried pipeline, seismic effects, inclusion of constructive, strength assessment, method of calculation.
EVALUATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF SPEEDAND PIPES METAL EMBRITTLEMENT
The acuteness of the problem of security of pipelines for gas production, transportation and processing of oil and gas is compounded by the presence of corrosive environments in the produced components, in particular hydrogen sulfide. These pipelines transporting hydrogen sulfide working environment possible localized strain aging processes, hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution of the metal.
The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of localized corrosion and embrittlement of the metal pipes under the influence of sulphuretted working environment and activation of the diffusion and corrosion processes.
Based on the analysis of current developments in the field of chemical and mechanical resistance of materials, mechanics of deformation and fracture of solids considered estimates for the mechanical activation of corrosion and diffusion processes in the metal pipes exposed to hydrogen sulfide environments.
Based on the thermodynamic mechanisms of fracture of materials, the analytic dependence to describe the corrosion of diffusion processes depending on the stress-strain state of the metal pipes with different source of strength and deformation characteristics.
The evaluation of the degree of equilibrium concentration of the impurity atoms depending on the degree and intensity of the preliminary plastic deformation of the metal pipe.
KEYWORDS: embrittlement, strain aging, corrode, corrosion and diffusion process, concentration of stress, plastic deformation, degree of tension.
Dorozhkin V.Yu., Graduate Student
Teregulov R.K., Candidat of Tehn. Sci., Docent
PROCESS LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS TO THE LNG PLANT MIDDLE EAST
Main purpose of this article is the comparative review of the liquefaction technologies on the Middle East LNG plants. Today’s Middle East is the leader in LNG delivery. Number of technological problems faced during exploitation phase of these plants and possible technological solutions described. Conclusions about some LNG plant construction principles and factors to be taken into account are given.
Scheme for the preparation and liquefaction of gas at the LNG plant in the UAE.
We consider the technological features of the LNG plant in Oman: refrigeration cycles; liquefaction cycle S3/MR mixed refrigerant.
Article affected liquefaction technology factory Qatargas-2 in particular, the process of propane precooling mixed refrigerant, technology AP-X.
Calculations and design of the liquefaction process at the LNG plant in Iran now suggest the possible volumes of LNG and related products.
Analysis of the various features of the application of technology for liquefying gas in the Middle East sooner or later it will be use d in the development of small and remotedeposits Russia.
KEYWORDS: LNG plant, history of development, Middle East, ADGAS, Qatargas, Oman LNG, Iran LNG project, development of industry.
Savelyev A.V., Candidat of Tehn. Sci., 25 State Scientific and Research Institute Chemmotology of Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation(st. Molodogvardeyskaya, 10, Moscow, 121467, Russian Federation)
Danilov V.F., Candidat of Tehn. Sci., Elabuga Institute (branch) of Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (89, Kazanskaya st., Elabuga, Tatarstan Republic, 423600, Russian Fedeation)
TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF REDUCING ATTRITION OIL STORAGE IN THE TANK
The existing methods of reducing the attrition of petroleum products if stored in the tank farm by capturing their vapors. It was concluded that the most promising by far the combined method, which is based on the use of the Carnot cycle. The essence of the method is that the mixture of oil vapor and air is first compressed with a portion of the internal energy of the mixture is converted into thermal energy. Then the heat is taken away from the mixture cooled, and the internal energy of the mixture goes to a lower level. Then the pressure drop across the throttling device or through an expander that is returned to the initial mixture of pressure indicators, but on a lower level of internal energy, which leads to lowering of the temperature and the intensive condensation of oil.
The implementation of this method is possible through the proposed authors device properties to reduce the losses of petroleum products at filling stations and storage of databases. The proposed device will significantly improve the efficiency of oil vapor recovery when stored in the tanks.
KEYWORDS: storage tanks, petroleum products, natural loss, reduction of losses, device for trapping oil vapor.
Gimaeva A.R.,Graduate Student
Shammazov A.M., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Kosmonavtov str., 1, Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation)
TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT USED FOR METHANOL IN OFFSHOREDEPOSITS
This article is devoted to the actual problem of associated petroleum gas’ utilization and usage, which is valuable chemical raw materials. The work consider the associated petroleum gas rational usage problems by its refining on methanol directly at the production site, and consider the questions of the dislocation. This decision is particularly cost-effective in cases when gas recovered from single and remote offshore deposits, when construction of gas transmission systems does not justify.
It was concluded about possibility of associated petroleum gas refining to methanol, which is a multipurpose semi-product on the basis of which it may be obtained various important chemical products, as well as ecologically clean liquid fuels and solvent. It was also analysed the methanol’s properties, studied the history of offshore floating methanol plants’ emergence for on-site processing of natural and associated gas in liquid methanol and studied the transport and storage’ questions of methanol on offshore conditions.
KEYWORDS: associated petroleum gas, methanol, floating offshore rig.
Baikov I.R., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Chair of Industrial Heat Power Engineering
Kuznetzova M.I., Postgraduate Student, Chair of transport and Storage of Oil and Gas
DETERMINATION OF INDICATORS OF POWER EFFICIENCY OF GAS TURBINE AND GAS TRANSFER UNITS
Gasprom company meets the requirements in natural gas not only of Russia, but also of some foreign countries. Considerable part of Fuel Power Resources (FPR) for own needs is expended in gas main transport and sub-surface storage of gas — 74,6%. And 93,2% in balance of consumption of Fuel Power Resources makes up for natural gas. An indicator of efficiency of functioning of technical system including Gas Turbine and Gas Transfer Unit Group is proposed in this work, the indicator taking into account the function of reliability. The proposed indicator may be recommended as supplementary criterion for indicators of power efficiency used in Gasprom.
KEYWORDS: energy saving, indicator of power efficiency, efficiency, gas turbine and gas transfer unit, reliability.